Blood is a fluid that passes through the body and delivers nutrients and oxygen to various tissues. Humans exhibit four main types of blood groups, such as A, B, AB, and O. Presence or absence of Rh antigen determines whether an individual is positive or negative for a particular blood type. Individuals with AB+ blood group lack antibodies and contain the antigens A, B, and Rh and hence can receive blood from any of these blood types, making them Universal recipients.
The two main blood grouping systems are ABO and Rh.
In ABO blood grouping, two antigens and two antibodies are involved. ABO blood grouping was developed by Karl Landsteiner. A and B are the two antigens, whereas antibody A and antibody B are the two antibodies. Antigens are present on the surface of Red blood cells, and antibodies are present in serum. Individuals, depending on the type of antigen present, can be grouped into A and B blood groups. Individuals that show both the antigens are grouped into the AB group, whereas the ones not showing either of the antigens are grouped as O group. Various antibodies present in different groups can be seen in the picture below. This system of blood grouping is very crucial during blood-transfusion reactions. The reaction between similar antigens and antibodies leads to agglutination and may be lethal to the individual.
Rh blood grouping also finds significant importance in blood-transfusion reactions, with its most important antigen being D antigen. This system was developed by Karl Landsteiner and Weiner. The word Rh is used because, for experimentation initially, blood of rhesus monkey was employed. Individuals can be Rh-positive or negative depending on the presence or absence of D antigen. It is used in combination with the ABO blood grouping to determine whether the blood type of person is positive or negative.
The primary rule of blood transfusion is that a person should receive blood with only similar antigens so that they are not rejected as foreign. AB+ individuals, apart from showing A and B antigens, also show D antigen, and hence the individuals of this group identify any group blood as self and not foreign. So, there are fewer chances of rejection and hence referred to as Universal recipient of blood.
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