Types of Granulosa cell Discussion Essay

Depending upon the location in which they are situated there are mainly three types of granulosa cells. They are:

Cumulus Granulosa cells

Mural Granulosa cells

The word cumulus oophorus is derived from the Greek word ‘a little mound’ and oophorus means carrying. These cells are directly affiliated to the thick layer of zona pellucida and are released with the oocyte amidst ovulation. The discus proligerus is also a layer which is linked betwixt cumulus oophorus and the membrane Granulosa. These granulosa cells are believed to supply nutrients to the developing oocyte and regulate its development in paracrine manner. So, the primary function of cumulus cells is to aid the growth and development of the oocyte.

Mural granulosa cells, these are also known as membrane granulosa as it lines the walls of the ovarian follicle. It possess endocrine function. It also assists in the development of corpus luteum. These cells resist within the ovary. Mural granulosa cells produce large amount of estrogen that may lead to luteinizing hormone efflux.

The primordial germ cells travel into the developing genitalia prior in embryogeneric and discriminate into oogenia which proliferate y the mitosis cell division. There are some cells which get enlarged and develop into the layer cells which are known as primary oocyte which then perform meiosis.

Primary follicle: Activation of primordial follicle lead to the formation of primary follicles. The oocyte augments s well as the follicular cells divide. Follicle which possess double layer of follicular cells is known as primary follicle. These cells form many larges around the oocyte which is then known as granulosa cells. These cells are known to secrete progesterone after ovulation. The thick layer betwixt the zona pellucid. And the stroma that surrounds the follicle changes to form ‘theca’ meaning a capsule like structure. The maturation of follicle takes 3 months.

Secondary follicle: The primary follicle matures into the secondary follicle. It possess more follicular cells and it is large in size as compared to primary follicle. In the intracellular spaces there is the accumulation of follicular fluid. These slowly integrate to form an antrum. The cells which surrounds the oocyte is known as cumulus oophorus and the theca divided into two layers i.e., theca interns and theca externa.

Graffian follicle: The secondary follicle matures into the Graffian follicle. In this phase the first meiotic division gets completed and the primary oocyte is now known as secondary oocyte and the second meiotic division starts. The zone pellucid oocyte as well as the follicular cells covers the oocyte to form a layer of corona radiata which is released out at ovulation and invade into fallopian tube.

Corpus Luteum: Corpus luteum is formed after the ovulation when the ruptured follicles collapse and fills with blood clots. The granulosa cells become larger and vesicular and are now known as granulosa lutein cells.

If pregnancy takes then the cells of placenta release human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone and the corpus luteum does not degenerate ;but if pregnancy does not occur then corpus luteum degenerates into corpus albicans along with the decrease in level of progesterone and estrogen leading to the releasing of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

Function of Granulosa cells
Granulosa cells perform following functions:

It nourishes the developing oocyte.

It is the site of action of FSH and estrogen hormone.

It consist an enzyme aromatase which converts the androgen into estrogen.

It also secretes inhibition which is responsible to inhibit the release of FSH from anterior pituitary.

It secretes antral fluid.

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