Reality-Based Cognitive Stimulations

Mind or Matter: Is Mental Deterioration Developing or Has the Mind Gone Bad


Jaden Banks

Department of Psychology, Augusta University

Psychology 3133: Adult Develop Aging

Dr. Katherine Boss-Williams

September 22, 2022






Part One:

Saunders, S., Ritchie, C. W., Russ, T. C., Muniz-Terrera, G., & Milne, R. (2022). Assessing and disclosing test results for ‘mild cognitive impairment’: The perspective of old age psychiatrists in Scotland. BMC Geriatrics, 22(1).

Assessing And Disclosing Test Results For ‘Mild Cognitive Impairment’: The Perspective of Old Age Psychiatrists In Scotland is a peer reviewed article from Galileo that was reviewed from checking the peer review only box. This article will allow me to answer the factors that are presented in order to determine if memory problems would be considered regular forgetfulness or if the problem is showing some sort of disease such as dementia. I read beginning with the abstract until the methods portion of the article in order to determine that this article was relevant to my research topic.

Podhorecka, M., Andrzejczak, J., Szrajber, R., Lacko, J., & Lipiński, P. (2021). Virtual reality-based cognitive stimulation using Grydsen Software as a means to prevent age-related cognitive-mobility disorders – a pilot observational study. Human Technology, 17(3), 321–335.

Virtual Reality-Based Cognitive Stimulations using Grydsen software is a peer review article that was received from Galileo by checking the “peer review scholarly articles only” check box as well. This article will answer both questions regarding factors that are present when determining memory problems being a part of normal aging or dementia and strategies in order to decrease presented memory problems. I read the abstract and the introduction in order to determine that this article could help my choice of research.



Article 1: Annotated Bibliography

Saunders, S., Ritchie, C. W., Russ, T. C., Muniz-Terrera, G., & Milne, R. (2022). Assessing and disclosing test results for ‘mild cognitive impairment’: The perspective of old age psychiatrists in Scotland. BMC Geriatrics, 22(1), 50.

In this article, the authors performed experimental research in order to attempt to describe rather Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a description of a memory decline or a diagnosis of a memory disease such as dementia. Mild Cognitive Impairment, also known as MCI, is an early stage of memory or cognitive loss. With deciphering the difference in rather MCI is a diagnosis or description, it will allow the knowing of what is necessary in order to determine rather or not losing memory is a normal thing that happens during old age or if it is safe to assume that there is an abnormality in the brain consisting of a disease. The experiment interviewed Old Age Psychiatrist in Scotland, UK and their thoughts on Mild Cognitive Impairment; allowing for different experts to delineate their perspectives and distinguish rather or not memory impairment is a normal factor of old gaining or if it is a detrimental indifference that could cause disabilities later down the line.

The experimenter realized that according to BMC Geriatrics; there is not enough information to decipher the difference between old age and dementia. According to the article, there are 3 stages of Alzheimer’s disease: pathology: preclinical, prodromal (MCI) and dementia stages and there are no facts about the pre-dementia stages. The only one way to analyze developing symptomatic dementia are for the guidelines to be met for each stage. The authors are expressive on their methods and discussions and very concise about the difference in diagnosing and describing a patient. Aging memory is in fact a normal attribute and should not be diagnosed unless the compulsory stages have been acknowledged.

Article 2: Annotated Bibliography

Podhorecka, M., Andrzejczak, J., Szrajber, R., Lacko, J., & Lipiński, P. (2021). Virtual reality-

based cognitive stimulation using Grydsen Software as a means to prevent age-related cognitive-mobility disorders – a pilot observational study. Human Technology, 17(3), 321–335.

This article discusses Virtual-Reality Therapy which is used in order to cognitively stimulate an individual with a memory disorder, permitting them to gain consciousness and acknowledge everyday task that has vanished the hippocampus. This article explained the differences in memory and how as age increases, cognitive functioning’s tend to become impaired, resulting in motor impairment as well. The experiment conducted evaluated individuals with dementia before and after virtual- reality therapy and how it exercises the necessary cognitive abilities to be practiced while playing a fun, entertaining game. The experimenter used people with forms of dementia in order to perform the research and was able to analyze that cognitive functions were increasing while practicing traditional methods on virtual reality, allowing for improvements in all forms of functioning to take place such as: attention, visual, memory, and long-lasting memory.

The authors conveyed the discussion and conclusions precisely and concluded that virtual-reality therapy is effective and useful. The stimulation of daily activity per the game system allowed the participants to remember traditional activities. Virtual-reality suggests that cognitive- motor training could prevent or slow a person’s cognitive decline down as age continues to increase. Limitations, however, did occur in the experiment being as though there were not many instructions on the game and the sample size was small.








Part Two:

Lin, L., Wu, Y., Wu, X., & Wu, S. (2019). APOE-Ε4 allele load modifies the brain aging process in cognitively normal late middle aged and older adults.  Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Information Processing and Cloud Computing – AIIPCC ’19, 52, 1-5.

This article is a peer reviewed article that was found by checking the peer review box on Galileo. This article will elaborate more in order to allow me to answer question one. The article will explain the factors considered when determining whether memory problems are a natural symptom of aging or if it is a start of something more serious within the brain. I read the abstract in order to conclude that this article will help my research topic and although it could use more information, it is valuable.

Huan, Z., Ying, Z., Jingya M., & Zheng L. (2021). Understanding help-seeking decisions in people with subjective cognitive decline: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Geriatric Nursing, 42(6), 1507-1516.

This article was found my minimizing my search to full text scholarly articles only on strategies to assist older people who are losing memory. A systematic review was completed on qualitative studies on the subject allowing for help to be found. This article can answer both questions on how to determine the difference in old age memory loss and strategies in order to improve the problem. The abstract and results were read in order to determine the importance and usefulness towards my research.

Pearman, A. (2020). Barriers to help-seeking for memory problems in older adults.  European

Geriatric Medicine,  11(6), 1027–1033.

This article is peer reviewed as well-being as though the “scholarly article” selection was selected when searching for articles. This article would answer the type of strategies useful in order to help a person who is experiencing memory problems. I read the abstract and the results along with the categories under the results portion of the paper. The section strategies seem simple, but the data given as to why older people do not make effort to improve their cognitive functioning allows for the barriers to be recognized and for advice to overcome the given situation.


Article 3: Annotated Bibliography

Huan, Z., Ying, Z., Jingya M., & Zheng L. (2021). Understanding help-seeking decisions in people with subjective cognitive decline: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Geriatric Nursing, 42(6), 1507-1516.

The article “ APOE-ε4 allele load modifies the brain aging process in cognitively normal late middle aged and older adults” explains that there is a genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) which show up in the brain, causing a decline in cognitive functioning. This researcher explains that the ε4 allele is present more in an individual with AD than in a healthy person. There has been a pattern between high frequency alleles and AD being present.

There was an experiment conducted in order to compare brain ageing and the differences in cognitively healthy and unhealthy samples. The test magnetic resonance image (MRI) concluded when people show lower levels of ε4, there tend to be no signs of cognitive decline of Alzheimer’s disease, reflecting in their brain age, being the same as their chorological age.

Simultaneously, this article will explain a biological aspect of cognitive decline and how it is shown in the brain. It gives a medical aspect of Alzheimer and is informative on what to look for besides physical symptoms of the disease

Article 4: Annotated Bibliography

Huan, Z., Ying, Z., Jingya M., & Zheng L. (2021). Understanding help-seeking decisions in people with subjective cognitive decline: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Geriatric Nursing, 42(6), 1507-1516.

This article was conducted based off a structured review of qualitative studies in order to decide on the necessary help based on the cognitive decline. The author reviewed different symptoms of cognitive impairment and then started to give different suggestions on how to deal with a certain level of impairment. There are different quotes from patients that allow the level of impairment to be accessed which then allows for the accessor to be able to conclude the necessary precautions that need to be taken.

The author also included negative attitudes and limitations to the accessibility of memory loss. This allowed for a patient’s perspective, reflecting in a better analysis being taken. Roughly, the findings of the report concluded that a memory assessment should be taken in order to diagnose the conditions of any memory diseases and that if symptoms continue to increase then a treatment should be suggested and prepared for the patient; allowing for the idea of assuming old age to reflects bad memory to be questioned and tested.

Article 5: Annotated Bibliography

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