Professor of Geography at Texas State University

Environment 69
This section was reviewed by Dr. David R. Butler,
Texas State University System Regents’ Professor of Geography at Texas State University–San Marcos.
The principal physical regions of Texas are usually
listed as follows (see also, the maps for Vegetational
Areas and Soils):
I. Gulf Coastal Plains
Texas’ Gulf Coastal Plains are the western extension
of the coastal plain extending from the Atlantic Ocean to
beyond the Rio Grande. Its characteristic rolling to hilly
surface covered with a heavy growth of pine and hardwoods extends into East Texas. In the increasingly arid
west, however, its forests become secondary in nature,
consisting largely of post oaks and, farther west, prairies
and brushlands.
The interior limit of the Gulf Coastal Plains in Texas
is the line of the Balcones Fault and Escarpment. This
geologic fault or shearing of underground strata extends
eastward from a point on the Rio Grande near Del Rio.
It extends to the northwestern part of Bexar County,
where it turns northeastward and extends through Comal, Hays, and Travis counties, intersecting the Colorado River immediately north of Austin. The fault line is a
single, definite geologic feature, accompanied by a line
of southward- and eastward-facing hills.
The resemblance of the hills to balconies when
viewed from the plain below accounts for the Spanish
name for this area: balcones.
North of Waco, features of the fault zone are sufficiently inconspicuous that the interior boundary of the
Coastal Plain follows the traditional geologic contact between upper and lower Cretaceous rocks. This contact is
along the eastern edge of the Eastern Cross Timbers.
This fault line is usually accepted as the boundary
between lowland and upland Texas. Below the fault line,
the surface is characteristically coastal plains. Above the
Balcones Fault, the surface is characteristically interior
rolling plains.
A. Pine Belt or “Piney Woods”
The Pine Belt, called the “Piney Woods,” extends
75 to 125 miles into Texas from the east. From north to
south, it extends from the Red River to within about 25
miles of the Gulf Coast. Interspersed among the pines
are hardwood timbers, usually in valleys of rivers and
creeks. This area is the source of practically all of Texas’
commercial timber production (see Texas Forest Resources, page 107). It was settled early in Texas’ history
and is one of the oldest farming areas in the state.
This area’s soils and climate are adaptable to the
production of a variety of fruit and vegetable crops. Cattle raising is widespread, along with the development of
Physical Regions
Rio Grande
Basin Edwards
Plateau Stockton
Rio Grande
L o w e r Ri o Gr a n d e Va l ley
Bal cones Fa u lt
West Texas Rolling
Physical Regions
of Texas
Blackland Belt
Eastern Cross Timbers
Post Oak Belt
Caprock Es c a r pme n t
Western Cross Timbers
70 Texas Almanac 2012–2013
pastures planted to improved grasses. Lumber production is the principal industry. There is a large iron-andsteel industry near Daingerfield in Morris County based
on nearby iron deposits. Iron deposits are also worked in
Rusk and one or two other counties.
A great oil field discovered in Gregg, Rusk, and
Smith counties in 1931 has done more than anything
else to contribute to the economic growth of the area.
This area has a variety of clays, lignite, and other minerals as potentials for development.
B. Post Oak Belt
The main Post Oak Belt of Texas is wedged between the Pine Belt on the east, Blacklands on the west,
and the Coastal Prairies on the south, covering a considerable area in East-Central Texas. The principal industry
is diversified farming and livestock raising.
Throughout, it is spotty in character, with some insular areas of blackland soil and some that closely resemble those of the Pine Belt. There is a small, isolated area
of loblolly pines in Bastrop, Caldwell, Fayette, and Lee
counties known as the “Lost Pines,” the westernmost
southern pines in the United States. The Post Oak Belt
has lignite, commercial clays, and some other minerals.
C. Blackland Belt
The Blackland Belt stretches from the Rio Grande to
the Red River, lying just below the line of the Balcones
Fault and varying in width from 15 to 70 miles. It is narrowest below the segment of the Balcones Fault from
the Rio Grande to Bexar County and gradually widens
as it runs northeast to the Red River. Its rolling prairie,
easily turned by the plow, developed rapidly as a farming
area until the 1930s and was the principal cotton-producing area of Texas. Now, however, other Texas areas
that are irrigated and mechanized lead in farming.
Because of the early growth, the Blackland Belt is
still the most thickly populated area in the state and
contains within it and along its border more of the state’s
large and middle-sized cities than any other area. Primarily because of this concentration of population, this
belt has the most diversified manufacturing industry of
the state.
D. Coastal Prairies
The Texas Coastal Prairies extend westward along
the coast from the Sabine River, reaching inland 30 to 60
miles. Between the Sabine and Galveston Bay, the line
of demarcation between the prairies and the Pine Belt
forests to the north is very distinct. The Coastal Prairies
extend along the Gulf of Mexico from the Sabine to the
Lower Rio Grande Valley.
The eastern half is covered with a heavy growth of
grass; the western half, which is more arid, is covered
with short grass and, in some places, with small timber
and brush. The soil is heavy clay. Grass supports the
densest cattle population in Texas, and cattle ranching is the principal agricultural industry. Rice is a major
crop, grown under irrigation from wells and rivers. Cotton, grain sorghum, and truck crops also are grown.
Coastal Prairie areas have seen the greatest industrial development in Texas history since World War II.
Chief concentration has been from Orange and Beaumont to Houston, and much of the development has
been in petrochemicals and the aerospace industry.
Corpus Christi, in the Coastal Bend, and Brownsville, in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, have seaports and
agricultural and industrial sections. Cotton, grain, vegetables, and citrus fruits are the principal crops. Cattle
production is significant, with the famed King Ranch and
other large ranches located here.
E. Lower Rio Grande Valley
The deep alluvial soils and distinctive economy
cause the Lower Rio Grande Valley to be classified as
a subregion of the Gulf Coastal Plains. “The Valley,”
as it is called locally, is Texas’ greatest citrus and winter vegetable growing region because of the normal
absence of freezing weather and the rich delta soils of
the Rio Grande. Despite occasional damaging freezes,
the Lower Valley ranks high among the nation’s fruit and
truck-farming regions. Much of the acreage is irrigated,
although dry-land farming also is practiced.
F. Rio Grande Plain
This area may be roughly defined as lying south
of San Antonio between the Rio Grande and the Gulf
These barrier island dunes are within the Texas Coastal Prairies, which extend along the Gulf of Mexico from the
Sabine River to the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Photo by Chad Leister, Mission-Aransas NERR.
Environment 71
Coast. The Rio Grande Plain shows characteristics of
both the Gulf Coastal Plains and the North Mexico Plains
because there is similarity of topography, climate, and
plant life all the way from the Balcones Escarpment in
Texas to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico, which runs
past Monterrey about 160 miles south of Laredo.
The Rio Grande Plain is partly prairie, but much of
it is covered with a dense growth of prickly pear, mesquite, dwarf oak, catclaw, guajillo, huisache, blackbrush, cenizo, and other cactus and wild shrubs. It is
devoted primarily to raising cattle, sheep, and goats.
The Texas Angora goat and mohair industry centers
in this area and on the Edwards Plateau, which borders
it on the north. San Antonio and Laredo are its chief commercial centers, with San Antonio dominating trade.
There is some farming, and the Winter Garden,
centering in Dimmit and Zavala counties north of Laredo,
is irrigated from wells and streams to produce vegetables in late winter and early spring. Primarily, however,
the central and western part of the Rio Grande Plain is
devoted to livestock raising.
The rainfall is less than 25 inches annually, and the
hot summers cause heavy evaporation, so that cultivation without irrigation is limited.
Over a large area in the central and western parts of
the Rio Grande Plain, the growth of small oaks, mesquite, prickly pear (Opuntia) cactus, and a variety
of wild shrubs is very dense, and it is often called the
Brush Country. It is also referred to as the chaparral
and the monte. (Monte is a Spanish word, one meaning
of which is dense brush.)
II. Interior Lowlands
North Central Plains
The North Central Plains of Texas are a southwestern extension into Texas of the interior, or central,
lowlands that extend northward to the Canadian border, paralleling the Great Plains to the West. The North
Central Plains of Texas extend from the Blackland Belt
on the east to the Caprock Escarpment on the west.
From north to south, they extend from the Red River to
the Colorado River.
A. West Texas Rolling Plains
The West Texas Rolling Plains, approximately the
western two-thirds of the North Central Plains in Texas,
rise from east to west in altitude from about 750 feet to
2,000 feet at the base of the Caprock Escarpment. Annual rainfall ranges from about 30 inches on the east to
20 inches on the west. In general, as one progresses
westward in Texas, the precipitation not only declines
but also becomes more variable from year to year. Temperature varies rather widely between summer’s heat
and winter’s cold.
This area still has a large cattle-raising industry
with many of the state’s largest ranches. However, there
is much level, cultivable land.
B. Grand Prairie
Near the eastern edge of the North Central Plains is
the Grand Prairie, extending south from the Red River
in an irregular band through Cooke, Montague, Wise,
Denton, Tarrant, Parker, Hood, Johnson, Bosque, Coryell, and some adjacent counties.
It is a limestone-based area, usually treeless except
along the numerous streams, and adapted primarily to
raising livestock and growing staple crops. Sometimes
called the Fort Worth Prairie, it has an agricultural
economy and largely rural population, with no large cities, except Fort Worth on its eastern boundary.
C. Eastern and Western Cross Timbers
Hanging over the top of the Grand Prairie and dropping down on each side are the Eastern and Western
Cross Timbers. The two southward-extending bands are
connected by a narrow strip along the Red River.
The Eastern Cross Timbers extend southward
from the Red River through eastern Denton County and
along the boundary between Dallas and Tarrant counties. It then stretches through Johnson County to the
Brazos River and into Hill County.
The much larger Western Cross Timbers extend
from the Red River south through Clay, Montague,
Jack, Wise, Parker, Palo Pinto, Hood, Erath, Eastland,
Comanche, Brown, and Mills counties to the Colorado
River, where they meet the Llano Basin.
Their soils are adapted to fruit and vegetable crops,
which reach considerable commercial production in
some areas in Parker, Erath, Eastland, and Comanche
The Ray Roberts-Lewisville Lake State Park Greenbelt lies in the North Central Plains near the boundary of the Grand
Prairie and the Eastern Cross Timbers. Photo by Robert Plocheck.
72 Texas Almanac 2012–2013
III. Great Plains
A. High Plains
The Great Plains, which lie to the east of the base of
the Rocky Mountains, extend into northwestern Texas.
This area, commonly known as the High Plains, is a
vast, flat, high plain covered with thick layers of alluvial
material. It is also known as the Staked Plains or the
Spanish equivalent, Llano Estacado.
Historians differ as to the origin of this name. Some
say it came from the fact that the explorer Coronado’s
expedition used stakes to mark its route across the
trackless sea of grass so that it would be guided on its
return trip. Others think that the estacado refers to the
palisaded appearance of the Caprock in many places,
especially the west-facing escarpment in New Mexico.
The Caprock Escarpment is the dividing line between the High Plains and the lower West Texas Rolling Plains. Like the Balcones Escarpment, the Caprock
Escarpment is a striking physical feature, rising abruptly
200, 500, and in some places almost 1,000 feet above
the plains. Unlike the Balcones Escarpment, the Caprock was caused by surface erosion.
Where rivers issue from the eastern face of the Caprock, there frequently are notable canyons, such as Palo
Duro Canyon on the Prairie Dog Town Fork of the
Red River, Blanco Canyon on the White River, as well
as the breaks along the Canadian River as it crosses the
Panhandle north of Amarillo.
Along the eastern edge of the Panhandle, there is
a gradual descent of the land’s surface from high to low
plains; but at the Red River, the Caprock Escarpment
becomes a striking surface feature. It continues as an
east-facing wall south through Briscoe, Floyd, Motley,
Dickens, Crosby, Garza, and Borden counties, gradually
decreasing in elevation. South of Borden County, the escarpment is less obvious, and the boundary between the
High Plains and the Edwards Plateau occurs where the
alluvial cover of the High Plains disappears.
Stretching over the largest level plain of its kind in
the United States, the High Plains rise gradually from
about 2,700 feet on the east to more than 4,000 in spots
along the New Mexico border.
Chiefly because of climate and the resultant agriculture, subdivisions are called the North Plains and South
Plains. The North Plains, from Hale County north, has
primarily wheat and grain sorghum farming, but with
significant ranching and petroleum developments. Amarillo is the largest city, with Plainview on the south and
Borger on the north as important commercial centers.
The South Plains, also a leading grain sorghum region, leads Texas in cotton production. Lubbock is the
principal city, and Lubbock County is one of the state’s
largest cotton producers. Irrigation from underground
reservoirs, centered around Lubbock and Plainview, waters much of the crop acreage.
B. Edwards Plateau
Geographers usually consider that the Great Plains
at the foot of the Rocky Mountains actually continue
southward from the High Plains of Texas to the Rio
Grande and the Balcones Escarpment. This southern
and lower extension of the Great Plains in Texas is
known as the Edwards Plateau.
It lies between the Rio Grande and the Colorado
River. Its southeastern border is the Balcones Escarpment from the Rio Grande at Del Rio eastward to San
Antonio and thence to Austin on the Colorado River. Its
upper boundary is the Pecos River, though the Stockton
Plateau is geologically and topographically classed with
the Edwards Plateau.
The Edwards Plateau varies from about 750 feet
high at its southern and eastern borders to about 2,700
feet in places. Almost the entire surface is a thin, limestone-based soil covered with a medium to thick growth
of cedar, small oak, and mesquite and a varying growth
of prickly pear. Grass for cattle, weeds for sheep, and
tree foliage for the browsing goats support three industries — cattle, goat, and sheep raising — upon which
the area’s economy depends. It is the nation’s leading
The Lake Buchanan lighthouse stands near the dam in the Llano Basin. This area, part of the Great Plains region, is
in the Highland Lakes Country. Photo by Ron Billings; Texas Forest Service.
Environment 73
Angora goat and mohair producing region and one of
the nation’s leading sheep and wool areas. A few crops
are grown.
Hill Country
The Hill Country is a popular name for the eastern
portion of the Edwards Plateau south of the Llano
Basin. Its notable large springs include Barton Springs
at Austin, San Marcos Springs at San Marcos, Comal
Springs at New Braunfels, several springs at San Antonio, and a number of others.
The Hill Country is characterized by rugged hills with
relatively steep slopes and thin soils overlying limestone
bedrock. High gradient streams combine with these
steep hillslopes and occasionally heavy precipitation to
produce an area with a significant flash-flood hazard.
C. Toyah Basin
To the northwest of the Edwards and Stockton plateaus is the Toyah Basin, a broad, flat remnant of an
old sea floor that occupied the region as recently as
Quaternary time.
Located in the Pecos River Valley, this region, in
relatively recent time, has become important for many
agricultural products as a result of irrigation. Additional
economic activity is afforded by local oil fields.
D. Llano Basin
The Llano Basin lies at the junction of the Colorado
and Llano rivers in Burnet and Llano counties. Earlier,
this was known as the “Central Mineral Region” because of evidence there of a large number of minerals.
On the Colorado River in this area, a succession of
dams impounds two large and five small reservoirs. Uppermost is Lake Buchanan, one of the large reservoirs,
between Burnet and Llano counties. Below it in the western part of Travis County is Lake Travis.
Between these two large reservoirs are three smaller ones, Inks, L.B. Johnson (formerly Granite Shoals),
and Marble Falls reservoirs, used primarily to produce
electric power from the overflow from Lake Buchanan.
Lake Austin is along the western part of the city of Austin. Still another small lake, Lady Bird Lake (formerly
Town Lake), is formed by a low-water dam in Austin.
The recreational area around these lakes has been
called the Highland Lakes Country. This is an interesting area with Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks found on
the surface. Granitic domes, exemplified by Enchanted
Rock north of Fredericksburg, form the core of this area
of ancient rocks.
IV. Basin and Range Province
The Basin and Range province, with its center in
Nevada, surrounds the Colorado Plateau on the west
and south and enters far West Texas from southern New
Mexico on the east. It consists of broad interior drainage
basins interspersed with scattered fault-block mountain ranges.
Although this is the only part of Texas regarded as
mountainous, these should not be confused with the
Rocky Mountains. Of all the independent ranges in West
Texas, only the Davis Mountains resemble the Rockies,
and there is much debate about this.
Texas west of the Edwards Plateau, bounded on
the north by New Mexico and on the south by the Rio
Grande, is distinctive in its physical and economic conditions. Traversed from north to south by fault-block mountains, it contains all of Texas’ true mountains and also is
very interesting geologically.
A. Guadalupe Mountains
Highest of the Trans-Pecos Mountains is the Guadalupe Range, which enters Texas from New Mexico. It
abruptly ends about 20 miles south of the boundary line,
where Guadalupe Peak, (8,749 feet, highest in Texas)
and El Capitan (8,085 feet) are situated. El Capitan,
because of perspective, appears to the observer on the
plain below to be higher than Guadalupe.
Lying just west of the Guadalupe Range and extending to the Hueco Mountains a short distance east of El
Paso is the Diablo Plateau or basin. It has no drainage
outlet to the sea. The runoff from the scant rain that falls
on its surface drains into a series of salt lakes that lie
Hueco Tanks State Park near El Paso lies within the Hueco Mountains, one of several fault-block mountain ranges that
traverse the Basin and Range Province of West Texas. Photo by Robert Plocheck.
74 Texas Almanac 2012–2013
just west of the Guadalupe Mountains. These lakes are
dry during periods of low rainfall, exposing bottoms of
solid salt; for years they were a source of commercial
salt. West of the Hueco Mountains are the Franklin
Mountains in El Paso, with the Hueco Bolson (a downdropped area approximately 4,000 feet above sea level)
separating the two fault-block ranges.
B. Davis Mountains
The Davis Mountains are principally in Jeff Davis
County. The highest peak, Mount Livermore (8,378
feet), is one of the highest in Texas; there are several others more than
7,000 feet high. These
mountains intercept the
moisture-bearing winds
and receive more precipitation than elsewhere
in the Trans-Pecos, so
they have more vegetation than the other
Trans-Pecos mountains.
Noteworthy are the San
Solomon Springs at the
northern base of these
C. Big Bend
South of the Davis
Mountains lies the Big
Bend country, so called
because it is encompassed on three sides by
a great southward swing
of the Rio Grande. It is a
mountainous country of scant rainfall and sparse population. Its principal mountains, the Chisos, rise to 7,825
feet in Mount Emory.
Along the Rio Grande are the Santa Elena, Mariscal, and Boquillas canyons with rim elevations of
3,500 to 3,775 feet. They are among the noteworthy
canyons of the North American continent.
Because of its remarkable topography and plant
and animal life, the southern part of this region along the
Rio Grande is home to Big Bend National Park, with
headquarters in the Chisos Basin, a deep valley in the
Chisos Mountains. It is a favorite recreation area.
D. Upper Rio Grande
The Upper Rio
Grande Valley, or El Paso
Valley, is a narrow strip
of irrigated land running
down the river from El
Paso for a distance of 75
miles or more.
In this area are the
historic towns and missions of Ysleta, Socorro,
and San Elizario, oldest
in Texas. Cotton is the
chief product of this valley, much of it is the longstaple variety.
This limited area has
a dense urban and rural
population, in marked
contrast to the territory
surrounding it. I
San Elizario Mission in the Upper Rio Grande Valley is the
oldest mission in Texas. Photo by Robert Plocheck.
March 1–3 2012, Omni Houston Hotel, Houston, Texas
Registration open to members and non-members. Detailed program available in January 2012.
Special hotel rates available.
Become immersed in Texas history with:
History Happens in Houston
• Informational sessions on Texas history by
preeminent historians
• Exhibit Hall of rare books and new books on
Texas and Southwest history
• Workshops on The Handbook of Texas,
Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Education
Programs, and TSHA Publications
• Saturday Live Auction
• Women in Texas History Luncheon
• Presidential Reception
• Book Lovers’ Breakfast
• Fellows Luncheon and Awards Presentation
• Presidential Banquet
• Historic Houston Sites Tour
• Silent Auction (940) 369-5200
Texas State Historical Association Annual Meeting 2012

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