The pathology of the cardiovascular system explains the diseases and their causes on the components of the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system is also known as the blood circulatory system in humans. It usually consists of blood vessels (including arteries, veins, or capillaries) and a four-chambered muscular heart. The heart has left and right sides separated by a muscular wall of tissues called the heart’s septum. The blood is commonly transported from one region to another through the blood vessels, including arteries for oxygenated blood transport and veins for carrying deoxygenated blood. The main functions of the cardiovascular system include:
Transportation of materials (oxygen and nutrients) through blood.
Protection against pathogens through white blood cells.
Regulation of the body temperature.
Coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and hypertension are the major problems that occur in the cardiovascular system. Artery blockage is the main cause of heart attack. In congestive heart failure, the heart is unable to pump the blood. The most common symptoms of cardiovascular diseases are changes in the rate of heartbeat, chest pain, breathlessness, and fatigue. Lack of exercise, obesity, drinking and smoking habits and poor diet are the major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.
Some of the cardiovascular problems that an individual may suffer from at some point in life are as follows: Atherosclerosis: It is a blood vessel disorder in which the hardening of the arteries takes place due to the accumulation of plaque on the inner walls of arteries. Plaque mainly consists of cholesterol, fat, and minerals such as calcium. This eventually causes blockage in the blood flow resulting in coronary artery disease. It may even lead to other health problems such as high blood pressure, and cardiac disorders.
Coronary Artery Disease (or CAD): It is a form of atherosclerosis that develops over time and is characterized by narrowing artery lumen with a continuous plaque accumulation. Initially, an individual does not experience any symptoms. With time, severe CAD may cause an individual to experience chest pain or heaviness in the chest region.
Peripheral Artery Disease (or PAD): It is another form of atherosclerosis that often occurs in extremities, especially in an individual’s legs. PAD causes reduced flow of blood to the legs, brain, as well as heart. Individuals with PAD are more vulnerable to other diseases and cardiovascular system disorders.
Many individuals remain asymptomatic, but others may experience redness on the skin, pain or cramps, coolness, and sores on the legs.
Hypertension: The condition characterized by relatively high blood pressure is commonly called hypertension. In severe cases, it can cause damage to the heart, blood vessels, or other vital organs of the body such as kidneys and brain. Usually, individuals do not experience symptoms of hypertension. Thus, this health condition is also known as the silent killer. However, severe hypertension can be indicated by symptoms including headaches, nosebleeds, shortness of breath, dizziness, chest pain, vision changes, and bloody urine.
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