Immunization Among Voice Assistant Users

“Hey Alexa, What do You Know About the
COVID-19 Vaccine?” – (Mis)perceptions of Mass
Immunization Among Voice Assistant Users
No Author Given
No Institute Given
Abstract. In this paper, we analyzed the perceived accuracy of COVID19 vaccine information spoken back by Amazon Alexa. Unlike social media, Amazon Alexa doesn’t apply soft moderation to unverified content,
allowing for use of third-party skills to arbitrarily phrase information
about the COVID-19 vaccine. The results from a 210-participant study
with Amazon Alexa suggest that a malicious third-party skill is successful in reducing the perceived accuracy of information as to who gets the
vaccine first, vaccine testing, and the side effects of the vaccine. We also
found that the vaccine-hesitant participants are drawn to pessimistically
rephrased Alexa responses focused on the downsides of the mass immunization. We discuss solutions for soft moderation against misperceptioninducing or COVID-19 misinformation malicious skills.
Keywords: Alexa · Malicious Skills · COVID-19 Vaccines
1 Introduction
Vaccine skepticism, with the extreme of anti-vaccination or anti-vax sentiment,
roots itself in fear and uncertainty about the safety, efficacy, and side effects
of vaccines. Safety concerns, fueled by unsupported claims or exaggerated facts
of side effects [6], can increase the public’s receptivity to conspiracy theories
or alternative treatments to avoid perceived risk [28]. In the absence of definitive authoritative information, the spread of such narratives can detrimentally
impact public health, particularly if recent events have eroded public trust in
vaccines. Unfortunately, though anti-vax communities on social media platforms
like Facebook and Twitter are small in both number and size, their engagement
with undecided users on those platforms is high, particularly compared to that
of pro-vaccination groups [28]. Even when users search for vaccine information
via search engines, they may still fall into the pitfalls of anti-vax content, “selfreferencing and mutually reinforcing links that can fool users into believing”
these ideas are widely held and plausible [30]. As users prioritize online sources
over the advice of health professionals in their medical decision-making [30], the
success and persistence of vaccine scepticism and anti-vax narratives grows more
troubling, threatening the global combat against the COVID-19 pandemic.
Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic forced the authorities to take unprecedented steps to develop, test, and disseminate a vaccine in a time-frame an
2 No Author Given
order of magnitude faster then the normal course for developing and approving
vaccines for viruses [54]. The extreme emergency for inoculation, exacerbated
by the political (mis)use of the pandemic in the US [18], catalyzed the spread
of alternative narratives about the COVID-19 vaccine focused on the vaccine
safety, gaps in testing, and serious side effects [5]. The potency of these narratives and the sheer volume of misinformation prompted the World Health
Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to maintain
a “myth-busters” section on their websites about the COVID-19 vaccine and
virus[57] [16]. It also forced social media platforms like Twitter to apply “soft
moderation,” e.g. label tweets with misleading or harmful information that could
“incite people to action and cause widespread panic, health anxiety, and fear that
could lead to social unrest or large-scale disorder” [44], [51].
Consequently, most of the academic attention about the alternative narratives of the COVID-19 vaccine has focused on the dissemination of misinformation on mainstream social media [5], [42], [26] (some work has been done on
alternative social media too, e.g. Parler [1], [38] where COVID-19 misinformation, unfortunately, is rampant). Mainstream social media platforms allow for
visual discernment of the information, formation of so-called “influencer” accounts, and direct communication of the engagement with the content metrics
such as number of replies, re-tweets, likes, and shares. While all of these factors
certainly affect the receptivity of any COVID-19 vaccine information posted on
these platforms, or any website for further visual inspection, little attention is
devoted to exploring how people respond to both COVID-19 vaccine narratives
when these are delivered through a voice assistant like Amazon Alexa.
Unlike social media, Alexa is the sole authority or “influencer” that delivers
information when prompted without disclosing the source of the information
of any engagement metrics (if any). Studies in the past had found that users
usually trust Alexa and worry only about Alexa intruding into their privacy,
but not about the validity of the information delivered by Alexa [31]. Akin
to posting unverified claims on mainstream social media, studies have shown
that bad actors can develop malicious third-party applications, called “skills”
for Alexa that can silently rephrase information from any source to mislead a
user and induce misperception about a polarizing topic such as vaccination, free
speech, or government actions [46],[49],[48]. This motivated us to explore how
users will respond when such a third-party skill is used to deliver rephrased
information about the COVID-19 vaccine.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper